A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP -14) includes 14 different blood tests that provide information on the levels of glucose, calcium, proteins, electrolytes and lipid panel in one’s body, as well as information on liver and kidney function. The test is often ordered as a part of a yearly health check. Results can reveal potential health problems in their early stages before any outward symptoms begin. The test is used more regularly in patients with diabetes and hypertension to monitor the progression of the disease. The CMP-14 is also used to monitor patients who are taking medications that affect the liver and kidneys. The following are the 14 tests included in the CMP-14.
Glucose is the body’s main source of energy and is produced during the breaking down of carbohydrates. Glucose levels should rise after a meal and then decrease over time. If glucose levels remain constantly high it can cause damage to the body. Testing the level of glucose in the blood is one of the best ways to determine the presence of diabetes, pre-diabetes and is one of the tests included in a CMP blood test.
Creatinine is a waste product found in the blood and urine. Creatinine is produced during the process of the body’s mobilization of food. Creatinine is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and transferred to the urine. Lower levels of creatinine in the urine and higher levels in the blood points to a problem in kidney function.
•Blood Urea Nitrogen
Like creatinine, urea is a waste product that can be tested to gauge kidney functioning. Urea is produced during the breaking down of proteins in the body. High blood levels of urea point to potential kidney problems.
Albumin is a protein that is produced by the liver. One of the main functions of albumin is to keep blood inside of the blood vessels. Albumin is also used in the transportation of acids, hormones, and drugs through the blood system. Low levels of albumin in the blood may be due to poor liver functioning or other health concerns, such as malnutrition.
Globulin refers to a group of proteins in the blood that help with blood circulation. Lower than normal range globulin levels may be a sign of renal concerns, while higher than normal range globulin levels may be a sign of a bone marrow disorder.
The total protein blood test is a combined measure of the two proteins albumin and globulin. This test helps to evaluate liver and kidney functioning.
•Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
ALT is produced mainly in the liver, but also in the kidneys, heart, and pancreas. A high level of ALT in the blood is normally caused by damage to the liver.
•Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)
Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme that is produced in the organs and in the bones. It is most prolifically produced in the liver, and low levels of ALP can indicate poor liver functioning, but can also be due to a bone-related disorder.
•Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
AST is an enzyme found in the red blood cells, liver, heart, pancreas, kidneys, and in muscle tissue. When there is damage to one of these areas, more AST is produced and released into the blood.
Fluids and Electrolytes
Sodium is a mineral that helps to keep a proper balance of water and electrolytes in the body. Sodium is important in nerve, muscle, liver, and kidney functioning.
Potassium serves much the same function in the body as sodium does. Levels of sodium and potassium often compensate for one another. When potassium levels are low, sodium levels are high and vice versa.
•Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
CO2 is a waste product of the metabolizing process. The CO2 is then transferred to the lungs where it is exhaled from the body. The liver and kidneys help to balance the level of CO2 in the blood
Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and is used in many of its functions. Calcium is kept in bones and is used in the building of teeth and bones, and in the functioning of the muscles, nerves, and brain.
Chloride is an electrolyte that is important in the regulation of blood pressure, blood volume, and blood pH levels.