Polymorphisms affect the levels and activity of the cytokines. These variations can affect balance between cell-mediated (TH-1) and humoral (TH-2) immunity, reveal potential defects in immune system defense, and stimulate mechanisms leading to chronic, overactive inflammatory responses.
The test uncovers potential genetic susceptibility to:
• Autoimmune Disorders
• Certain Cancers
• Infectious Diseases
• Bone Inflammation
• Inflammatory Bowel Disease
• Heart Disease
• Helicobacter pylori infection (cause of ulcers)
• IL-1ß (interleukin-1beta)
This gene affects the duration and intensity of the acute inflammatory response. The polymorphism leads to increased production of IL-1B, hypochlorhydria, increased susceptibility to H. pylori infection, and gastritis and gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected individuals.
TH-1 Cytokines (Viral Infection & Cancer)
• TNF-a (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Polymorphisms of this gene affect cell-mediated immunity, increasing production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. This can promote or exacerbate chronic conditions such as arthritis, osteoporosis, and asthma.
TH-2 Cytokines (Allergy, Asthma, and Atopy)
• IL-4 (interleukin-4)
• IL-6 (interleukin-6)
• IL-10 (interleukin-10)
• IL-13 (interleukin-13)
TH-2 cytokines promote humoral immunity, including the synthesis of IgE. They are generally regarded as anti-inflammatory; however, excessive activity of some of these cytokines may promote the development of allergic conditions such as atopy, asthma, and hypersensitivity. Low levels may result in chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by a TH-1 response. IL-6 has both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties; this cytokine drives the acute phase response and can promote chronic inflammation and progression in autoimmune disease.