Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA) (Endocrine Sciences)
The Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA) Test helps assess if an individual has an increased risk of developing autoimmune type 1 diabetes.
What are IAA Autoantibodies?
Diabetes is a disease that develops either when the body is not able to make or use insulin appropriately. As a result, the body generates too much blood glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream.
The two primary types of diabetes are:
- Type 1: It happens when the body cannot produce insulin. It is commonly referred to as juvenile diabetes because it is primarily found in children and teenagers. However, type 1 diabetes also affects adults.
- Type 2: It happens when the body cannot make enough insulin or doesn't use it as it should. Although type 2 diabetes is primarily found in adults, many children and teenagers are diagnosed with it.
The occurrence of IAA autoantibodies in people with diabetes suggests that they have autoimmune diabetes (type 1 diabetes). Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease since the lack of insulin stems from an immune response that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Therefore, it is recommended that IAA testing be performed before insulin therapy is initiated. For the IAA result to be accurate, the patient must not be insulin-treated for more than two weeks.
Approximately 50% of children with new-onset type 1 diabetes have IAA autoantibodies. However, these autoantibodies are less common in adults. A positive result for IAA autoantibodies in asymptomatic individuals or those with a family history may suggest an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
What is the purpose of this test?
Order this IAA Autoantibodies Test to help assess the risk of developing autoimmune type 1 diabetes. This IAA autoantibody test may also be helpful for individuals with the following conditions:
- Have an increased risk for type 1 diabetes
- Have an allergic response to insulin
- Insulin is no longer able to regulate diabetes
- Taking insulin to regulate diabetes, and blood sugar levels fluctuate, with both high and low numbers that can't be explained by the food consumed at the timing of insulin injections
When should I order an IAA Autoantibodies Test?
Individuals may order this test if they have experienced symptoms related to type 1 diabetes. Signs or symptoms of type 1 diabetes may include:
- Dry mouth
- Frequent urination
- Constant hunger
- Weight loss
- Slow-healing sores or wounds
- Dry or itchy skin
- Numbness or tingling in your feet
- Blurry vision
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