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Kidney #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel

The Kidney #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel consists of 3 comprehensive blood and urine tests that evaluate the overall health of the kidneys.


Test Code: 2871

CPT Code: See Individual Tests

Also Known As:

Methodology:

See Individual Tests

Specimen Type: Blood and Urine

Preparation:

Fasting for 12 hours required.

Test Results:

1-2 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.


Test Code: 2222

CPT Code: See Individual Tests

Also Known As:

Methodology:

See Individual Tests

Specimen Type: Blood and Urine

Preparation:

Fasting for 12 hours required.

Test Results:

1-2 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Description

What is the purpose of this test?

A Kidney #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel that includes a Complete Blood Count (CBC), Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14), and Urinalysis Complete with a Microscopic Examination is done to evaluate the overall health of the kidneys. The kidneys are crucial in filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, regulating blood pressure, and producing hormones that help control red blood cell production and bone health. A Kidney #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel is a comprehensive set of tests that provides a detailed evaluation of the overall health of the kidneys.

 

Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential and Platelets - measures various components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. An abnormal CBC result can indicate anemia, infection, inflammation, or other blood disorders affecting kidney function.

 

  • White Blood Cells (WBC) - The body's primary defense against disease and helps to fight infection.
  • Red Blood Cells (RBC) - Responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide away from all cells. Iron deficiency will lower the RBC count.
  • Hemoglobin - A chemical compound inside red cells that transports oxygen through the bloodstream to all body cells. Hemoglobin gives the red color to blood.
  • Hematocrit - Measures the amount of space red blood cells take up in the blood. It is reported as a percentage.
  • Neutrophils - Neutrophils are the most common type of white blood cells created by the bone marrow to combat various inflammatory and infectious diseases.
  • Lymphocytes - B-cells and T-cells are lymphocytes that fight bacteria and other pathogens in the blood. They are primarily found in the lymph system.
  • Monocytes - Working alongside neutrophils, monocytes play a vital role in fighting infections and other diseases and clearing away dead or damaged cells.
  • Eosinophils - White blood cells called eosinophils activate in response to allergies and certain infections.
  • Basophils - Basophils play a role in detecting infections early on, aiding in wound healing, and reacting to allergic responses.
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) - The average hemoglobin concentration within a red blood cell.
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) - A red blood cell's average hemoglobin concentration percentage.
  • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) - The average size of red blood cells.
  • Platelets - Blood cell particles associated with the forming of blood clots.
  • Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) - Measures the amount of red blood cell variation in volume and size.
  • Absolute Neutrophils - The absolute neutrophil count measures the number of neutrophils in your blood. Normal range is 2,500-7,000 per microliter. Counts outside this range indicate a possible condition.
  • Absolute Lymphocytes - To calculate your absolute lymphocyte count, multiply your white blood cell count by the percentage of lymphocytes. This gives you the number of lymphocytes as an absolute number.
  • Absolute Monocytes - The absolute monocyte count indicates the number of monocytes in the blood, helping to identify if the count is normal, high, or low.
  • Absolute Eosinophils - Absolute eosinophil count measures the number of eosinophils in blood by multiplying the percentage of eosinophils in a complete blood count with the total number of white blood cells in the same count.
  • Absolute Basophils - Absolute basophil count is calculated by multiplying the percentage of basophils by the total number of white blood cells in a blood sample.

 

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) - measures levels of various substances in the blood, such as electrolytes, glucose, and proteins. The kidneys play a key role in regulating these substances, and abnormal levels can be an early sign of kidney disease or other conditions that affect the kidneys.

 

  • Glucose - Blood sugar level, the most direct test to screen for diabetes and also used in diabetes management.

 

  • Kidney Profile
    • Bun or Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - An indicator of kidney function.  
    • Creatinine, Serum - An indicator of kidney function.  
    • Bun/Creatinine Ratio - Calculated by dividing BUN by creatinine. This ratio can suggest conditions including dehydration or intestinal bleeding.
    • Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) - Measures kidney function to determine kidney disease stage and detect early kidney damage.

 

  • Liver Panel
    • Protein, Total - Assists in determining liver and kidney function and nutritional health.
    • Albumin Serum - One of the major proteins essential for the healthy function of the liver and kidney. 
    • Globulin, Total - One of the major proteins that assist the blood to clot properly and also comprises infection-fighting antibodies. 
    • Albumin/Globulin Ratio - Calculated by dividing albumin by globulin. When paired with other test results, this ratio can assist in diagnosing various liver problems. 
    • Bilirubin, Total - Aids in detecting hepatitis, sickle cell, anemia, cirrhosis, alcohol, and drug abuse. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
    • Alkaline Phosphatase - A protein vital in detecting bone disorders and liver disease.
    • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) - An enzyme helpful in evaluating liver function. An elevated level is an indication of hepatitis. 
    • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) - An enzyme helpful in identifying liver damage. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.

 

  • Fluids & Electrolytes
    • Sodium - One of the major salts in body fluid. Sodium is important in water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
    • Potassium - Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
    • Chloride - Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
    • Carbon Dioxide, Total - Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
    • Calcium - A mineral essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It is also important for the normal function of muscles, nerves, and blood clotting.

 

Urinalysis, Complete with a Microscopic Examination - measures various components of urine, such as protein, glucose, and red and white blood cells. An abnormal urinalysis result can indicate kidney disease, urinary tract infections, or other conditions that affect the kidneys.

 

  • Specific Gravity - The concentration of the urine sample. This is used to help evaluate the level of certain substances dissolved in the urine. Low specific gravity can result from ingesting large amounts of water before urination.
  • pH - This is affected by the acid/base balance in the body. A pH that is too high or low can form crystals in the urine, leading to the development of kidney stones. PH can be adjusted through diet or medication.
  • Color - Darker urine coloration can result from some medications, eating certain foods, blood in the urine, dehydration, or fever
  • Appearance - Bacteria, red blood cells, white blood cells, mucus, or contaminants such as lotions or powders may cause cloudy or turbid urine.
  • WBC Esterase - White blood cells in the urine typically indicate a bacterial urinary tract infection. It may also be caused by inflammation in the kidneys. 
  • Protein - The amount of albumin in the urine. Protein in the urine can indicate kidney disease or conditions affecting the urinary tract.
  • Glucose - Glucose in the urine can be a sign of abnormally high blood sugar levels, such as those caused by diabetes.
  • Ketones - Ketones are produced when the body metabolizes fat. They can indicate several conditions, including starvation, a high protein/low carbohydrate diet, diabetes, or frequent vomiting.
  • Occult Blood - Blood in the urine can indicate several conditions affecting the kidneys or urinary tract. It can also be caused by contamination from sources such as menstruation, hemorrhoids, or vaginal bleeding.
  • Bilirubin - Bilirubin is a waste product produced by the liver. Bilirubin in urine can be an early indicator of liver disease.
  • Urobilinogen - Urobilinogen is formed from Bilirubin. Its presence in urine is typically a sign of liver disease.
  • Nitrite - Nitrite in the urine is usually caused by bacteria, which can indicate a urinary tract infection.

 

microscopic examination will automatically be performed if any abnormalities are detected in the initial urinalysis. The microscopic examination may include some or all of the following if results warrant:

 

  • White Blood Cells (WBC) - WBC's in urine usually indicate inflammation or infection of the urinary tract.
  • Red Blood Cells (RBC) - RBC's in urine can be caused by inflammation or injury to the kidneys or urinary tract.
  • Epithelial Cells - High concentrations of epithelial cells is typically caused by infection or inflammation of the urinary tract.
  • Crystals - Crystals may be formed by various particles which are dissolved in urine. Crystal formation may be due to an abnormal pH balance or a higher-than-normal concentration of particles. Crystals formed in the kidneys may lead to the development of kidney stones. 
  • Casts - Casts are cylindrical particles formed from proteins secreted by the kidneys. In people with kidney disease, substances such as RBCs or WBCs may become trapped in the proteins. Examining the casts can help differentiate between types of kidney disorders.
  • Mucus - Mucus in the urine may result from a urinary tract infection or conditions affecting the digestive system, specific STDs, or kidney disease.
  • Bacteria - Bacteria in the urine usually indicate a urinary tract infection. Care should be taken to avoid contaminating the specimen with bacteria from the genital area or hands.

 

By combining these tests, healthcare providers can get a comprehensive and detailed picture of a patient's kidney health. Early detection of kidney disease is crucial for effective treatment, and a Kidney #1 Baseline Blood and Urine Test Panel can help identify any potential issues before they become more serious.

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