S-100B Protein Serum Test
The S-100B Protein Serum Test measures S-100B protein levels in a blood sample to help screen for various central nervous system pathologies and malignant melanoma.
What is the purpose of this test?
Order this S-100B Protein Serum Test, which measures S-100B protein levels in a blood sample to help screen for various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies and malignant melanoma. S-100B is a protein tumor marker for assessing melanoma patients. S-100B serum levels can reflect tumor load, correlate with response to treatment, identify patients who are at increased risk of disease relapse, may predict prognosis, and could be used as early biomarkers of tumor recurrence. For high-risk surgically resected melanoma patients, a high baseline or increasing serum S-100B is an independent prognostic marker of risk for mortality, and normal values predict prolonged survival for stage IV melanoma patients. The measurement of S-100B in the diagnosis, follow-up, and therapeutic monitoring of malignant melanoma has been suggested by Swiss, German, and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines.
Additionally, S-100B has been employed as a screening, monitoring, and prediction tool in managing traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, and it has been included in several guidelines as a pre-head CT screening test. S-100B levels are significantly higher in children with TBI compared with healthy matched controls and more increased in children with lower presenting Glasgow Coma Scale scores. A high S-100B level at admission was associated with poor outcomes at hospital discharge. Outcome at six months post-injury, assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score, is associated with S-100B levels at admission and one-week following injury. Time to peak S-100B levels was associated with neurocognitive outcomes. Two other studies found that admission levels were associated with poor results at 12 months post-injury.
What conditions are associated with S-100B protein?
S100 protein is associated with various uses, and it is the marker of brain damage in the following pathological conditions:
- Mild traumatic brain injury
- Alzheimer's disease
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage
- Ischemic stroke and other neurological disorders
- Monitoring and assessing treatment efficacy, early detection of recurrences in malignant melanoma and other neoplastic diseases
- Perinatal hypoxic CNS lesions in children
- Inflammatory diseases
When should I order an S-100B Protein Serum Test?
Individuals may order this test if they have experienced symptoms related to brain damage or other CNS pathologies. Common signs or symptoms of brain damage may include the following:
- Loss of consciousness
- Loss of coordination
- Worsening headache
- Unusual or combative behavior
- Loss of vision
- Vomiting or nausea
- Slurred speech
- Convulsions or seizures
- Inability to wake up from sleep
- Dilation of the pupils
- Clear fluids draining from the nose or ears
- Loss of strength or numbness in fingers and toes
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