ANA Screen,IFA, with Reflex to Titer and Pattern Blood Test
An ANA-IFA Blood Test is used as a primary test to help evaluate a person for autoimmune disorders that affect many tissues and organs throughout the body.
The test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is done to help diagnose if you have an autoimmune disease. Antinuclear antibodies are found in individuals whose immune system can not distinguish between their healthy cells and virus and bacterial cells. Your body will produce proteins that attack your healthy cells when this happens. These proteins are also referred to as antibodies.
Redness and swelling, known as inflammation, occurs when the proteins attack cells in the body.
Antinuclear antibodies can be found in many autoimmune diseases, including:
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
Symptoms of autoimmune diseases that antinuclear antibodies can cause include:
- weight loss
- joint pain
- skin rash
There are three elements to consider in the result with the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) methodology.
Negative or positive fluorescence - A negative test is substantial evidence against a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis, but not conclusive.
The titer - The titer (dilution) to which the fluorescence remains positive (a representation of the antibody 's concentration or avidity). Many people, particularly the elderly, may have low titer ANA with no substantiated disease after work-up.
Nuclear fluorescence pattern (that represents the specificity of different diseases) - Homogenous and/or nuclear (peripheral) pattern corresponds with native DNA and deoxynucleoprotein and bears SLE, SLE, and lupus nephritis association. SLE or other connective tissue diseases are indicated by a homogeneous (diffuse) pattern. Speckled pattern corresponds with an antibody to saline-extractable nuclear antigens; it is found in many disease states including SLE and scleroderma. When antibodies to DNA and deoxyribonucleoprotein are present (rim and homogeneous pattern), it is possible that there may be interference with the detection of speckled pattern. Nucleolar pattern is seen in sera of progressive systemic sclerosis and Sjögren 's syndrome patients. Centromere pattern is seen in CREST syndrome.
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