Male Blood Spot Profile II - ZRT Test Kit
The Male Blood Spot Profile II checks the primary male sex hormones and their main binding globulin, and screens adrenal health using morning cortisol in addition to accessing the overall thyroid health.
The Male Blood Spot Profile II is an overall evaluation of the health and vitality of males and an indicator of particular hormone and thyroid imbalances. It measures the level of sex and adrenal hormones in blood, and includes a PSA test to assist in accessing prostate health. This profile also accesses overall thyroid health, which includes checking for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, determines Free T3 and Free T4 levels, monitors dosages for thyroid replacement and tests for autoimmune thyroid disease.
The Male Blood Profile II includes Estradiol total, Testosterone total, PSA, DHEAs, Cortisol, SHBG, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, and TPOab.
This profile may be considered for:
- Adrenal dysfunction
- Low libido
- Osteoporosis screening
- Estrogen dominance symptoms
- Erectile dysfunction (ED)
Estradiol is an estrogen and the primary sex hormone for females. It is important in regulating the reproductive cycles for females. It is released from ovaries and adrenal glands and plays a major role in the growth of women's reproductive tissues, including breasts, uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina throughout life stages. This also affects other tissues including bone, fat, skin, liver, and brain. When assessing menopausal symptoms that may include hot flashes, mood disturbances, and aging skin, it is important to compare the relationship between estradiol and progesterone.
Males do have estradiol in their bodies but the amount compared to females is much lower. Estradiol is released from the testes and adrenal glands. Since males lack female anatomy, they must generate estrogen through a process involving aromatase, an enzyme that converts testosterone into estradiol. Estradiol has been shown in vitro to stop cell destruction, but its clinical importance in male sexual function and growth is lower than in females.
Testosterone is the primary sex hormone and anabolic steroid for males. Testosterone plays a key role in male reproductive tissue production, such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics, such as increased muscle and bone mass, and body hair growth. Female ovaries do produce testosterone in much smaller amounts compared to males. Testosterone development begins to increase dramatically during puberty and starts declining after age 30 or so.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate prostate cancer, a noncancerous condition such as prostatitis, or an enlarged prostate. It is important to note that not all cases of prostate cancer will show elevated total PSA levels and there are other conditions that may cause higher PSA levels besides cancer. In general, serum PSA levels increase due to physical changes to prostate architecture caused by trauma, infection, inflammation, prostate manipulation, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) or malignancy.
DHEA sulfate is an androgen (male sex hormone) that is present in the blood of both men and women. It assists in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty and can be metabolized into testosterone and androstenedione (more potent androgens), or changed into estrogen (a female hormone). The outer layer of the adrenal glands, the adrenal cortex, is responsible for producing DHEA sulfate, while smaller amounts are produced in the testes and ovaries. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate secretion is controlled by the pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and other pituitary factors. Since DHEA,s is primarily produced by the adrenal glands, it is a strong marker for adrenal function. Cancers, adrenal tumors, and hyperplasia can lead to the overproduction of DHEA sulfate. While elevated levels may not be noticed in adult men, they can lead to visible symptoms of virilization and amenorrhea.
Cortisol, the major adrenal glucocorticoid steroid hormone, is usually under feedback control by pituitary ACTH and the hypothalamus. Causes of low cortisol include pituitary failure or destruction, with resultant loss of ACTH to stimulate the adrenal, and metabolic errors or destruction of the adrenal gland itself (adrenogenital syndromes, tuberculosis, histoplasmosis). The diagnosis of hypoadrenalism usually requires confirmation with ACTH stimulation, due to the circadian rhythms of cortisol and other factors. Causes of increased cortisol, which may initially present as simply a loss of normal diurnal variation, include pituitary overproduction of ACTH, production of ACTH by a tumor (notably oat cell cancers), and adrenal adenomas.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG)
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG), is a protein produced by the liver. It binds tightly to the hormones, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone, and estradiol (an estrogen), transporting them in the blood in a metabolically inactive form. The amount of SHBG in a patient's blood is affected by sex and age, increased or decreased testosterone, or estrogen production. It can also be affected by diseases and conditions such as obesity, liver disease, and hyperthyroidism, or hypothyroidism. Adult males test SHBG and testosterone levels to help determine the cause of infertility, decreased sex drive, and erectile dysfunction, especially when total testosterone results are found inconsistent with clinical signs.
TSH – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Produced by the pituitary, TSH acts on the thyroid gland to stimulate the production of the thyroid hormones T4 and T3. Higher than normal TSH can indicate a disorder of the thyroid gland, while low TSH can indicate over-production of, or excessive supplementation with, T4 and/or T3, which acts in negative feedback on the pituitary to reduce TSH production. Low TSH can also be caused by problems in the pituitary gland itself, which results in insufficient TSH being produced to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism).
Free T4 – Thyroxine
T4 (thyroxine) is the predominant hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is an inactive hormone and is converted to its active form, T3 within cells. Free T4 is the non-bound fraction of the total T4 circulating in the blood. Free T4 is available to the issues and represents 0.04% of the total T4 levels. High TSH combined with low free T4 levels indicates hypothyroidism while low TSH and high free T4 levels indicate hyperthyroidism.
Free T3 – Triiodothyronine
The active thyroid hormone that regulates the metabolic activity of cells. Free T3 is the non-protein-bound fraction circulating in the blood, representing about 0.4% of the total circulating T3, which is available to tissues. Elevated T3 levels are seen in hyperthyroid patients, but levels can be normal in hypothyroid patients because it does not represent the intracellular conversion of T4 to T3, which comprises about 60% of all T3 formed in tissues.
TPOab – Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies
Thyroid peroxidase is an enzyme used by the thyroid gland in the manufacture of thyroid hormones by liberating iodine for attachment to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. In patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (predominantly Hashimoto’s disease), the body produces antibodies that attack the thyroid gland, and levels of these antibodies in the blood can diagnose this condition and indicate the extent of the disease.
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