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Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Blood Test

An alpha-1 antitrypsin blood test is integral in defining the cause of early-onset emphysema and liver dysfunction.

Sample Report

Test Code: 001982

Also Known As: AAT; Acute Phase Proteins; Alpha1-Antitrypsin Serum; Alpha1-Protease Inhibitor; A1AT; Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Testing; AAT testing

Methodology: Immunologic

Preparation: Fasting for 10-12 hours required.

Test Results: 1-3 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Sample Report

Test Code: 235

Also Known As: AAT; Acute Phase Proteins; Alpha1-Antitrypsin Serum; Alpha1-Protease Inhibitor; A1AT; Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Testing; AAT testing

Methodology: Immunoturbidimetric Assay

Preparation: Fasting for 10-12 hours required.

Test Results: 2-4 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Description

An alpha-1 antitrypsin test (AAT) may be ordered when a person under 40 years of age develops a chronic cough or bronchitis, wheezing, or short of breath after exertion and shows other signs of emphysema. This is especially true when the patient has not been exposed to known lung irritants, is not a smoker, and when the lung damage appears to be located low in the lungs. AAT testing may also be done if you have a close relative with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

The American Thoracic Society recommends AAT testing when individuals are diagnosed with certain conditions, such as: 

  • Emphysema at a young age (younger than 45 years old) and no distinct risk factors for the disease, such as smoking
  • Bronchiectasis, a condition in which the airways are stretched and widened
  • Asthma that is difficult to treat
  • Liver disease with no known cause
  • A skin disease called panniculitis, an uncommon complication of AAT deficiency that is characterized by red, tender nodules on the skin

 Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency has been associated with many diseases:  

  • Cirrhosis
  • COPD
  • Pneumothorax
  • Asthma
  • Wegener's granulomatosis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Gallstones
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Pelvic organ prolapse
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Autoimmune hepatitis
  • Emphysema, predominantly involving the lower lobes and causing bullae
  • Secondary Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis
  • Cancer
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma (liver)
    • Bladder carcinoma
    • Gallbladder cancer
    • Lymphoma
    • Lung cancer

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