PPP Wellness #2 Blood Test Panel
The PPP Wellness #2 Blood Test Panel includes a Lipid Panel, CMP-14, Hemoglobin A1C, Homocysteine, CRP, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, Vitamin D-25, Testosterone total, Estradiol, Fasting Insulin, plus The NMR LipoProfile.
Cholesterol, total; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (calculation); triglycerides; very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol (calculation)
Glucose-Blood sugar level, the most direct test to discover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Bun or Urea Nitrogen BUN is another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys and an indicator of kidney function.
Creatinine, Serum An indicator of kidney function.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.
Protein, Total Together with albumin, it is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body.
Albumin Serum one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition.
Globulin, Total A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies.
Albumin/Globulin Ratio Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin.
Bilirubin, Total A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
Alkaline Phosphatase A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)an enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Fluids & Electrolytes
Sodium One of the major salts in the body fluid, sodium is important in the body's water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
Potassium Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
Chloride Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
Carbon Dioxide, Total Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
Calcium- A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting).
Hemoglobin (Hgb) A1c Blood Test:
Test to evaluate average amount of glucose in your blood.
Homocysteine Blood Test, Plasma:
The homocysteine blood test helps diagnose B12/folate deficiencies and to identify patients who may be at risk for heart disease and/or strokes.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Blood Test, High Sensitivity (Cardiac Risk Assessment):
The CRP blood test, also known as the C-reactive protein blood test, is used to evaluate the level of inflammation in the body. The test is commonly ordered to monitor conditions such as arthritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and coronary artery disease. The test is also used to measure the presence of infection after surgery and the level of damage sustained from a heart attack.
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) Blood Test:
TSH is a thyroid function test used to assist in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders, monitor thyroid replacement therapy in patients with hypothyroidism, diagnose and/or monitor female infertility problems, and occasionally the test is used to help evaluate pituitary gland function. While the test is most often used to help diagnose thyroid disorders in adults, expert opinions vary on the benefits of screening, and at what age to begin testing.
Tri-iodothyronine (T3) normally represents only approximately 5% of the thyroid hormone and like thyroxine is almost entirely bound to the carrier proteins, with only 0.25% of the total being in the free state. Measurement of Free T-3 is of value in confirming the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, when an elevated free or total thyroxine level is found. Abnormal total and free tri-iodothyronine concentrations can appear in T3 toxicosis, in the presence of normal thyroxine levels. Free T3 levels are not affected by carrier protein variation.
Free T4 is the active form of thyroxine and is thought to be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function. The free T4 test is thought by many to be a more accurate reflection of thyroid hormone function and, in most cases, its use has replaced that of the total T4 test. A total T4 or free T4 test is primarily ordered in response to an abnormal TSH test result. Sometimes the T4 will be ordered along with a TSH to give the doctor a more complete evaluation of the adequacy of the thyroid hormone feedback system. These tests are usually ordered when a person has symptoms of hyperthroidism or hypothyroidism.
Vitamin D 25-Hydroxy:
Vitamin D is essential in the growth and formation of healthy bones and teeth. Without it, children can develop a bone-malformation condition known as rickets, and adults can develop osteomalacia, which is characterized by weakness, softness or fractures of the bones. Vitamin D also helps regulate levels of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in the blood, and has been shown to influence the growth of other tissues in the body as well as the regulation of the immune system. Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in the development of conditions such as cancer, heart disease‚ osteoporosis and multiple sclerosis.
Testosterone testing is used in the evaluation of androgen excess or deficiency related to gonadal function, adrenal function, or tumor activity in men and woman. Testosterone is believed to play an important role in bone and muscle strength and libido in women.
Estradiol (E2) Blood Test: For Infertility, In Vitro Fertilization Support:
The Estradiol assay is usually ordered for the investigation of fertility of women of reproductive age and for the support of in vitro fertilization. Small amounts of Estradiol are produced by men. Estradiol is the primary reproductive hormone in nonpregnant women. This steroid hormone plays an important role in normal fetal development and in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females. Estradiol influences the maturation and maintenance of the uterus during the normal menstrual cycle. Levels of estradiol steadily increase during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in association with the growth and development of the ovarian follicle. As the follicular phase proceeds, estradiol exerts a negative feedback control on the pituitary, resulting in a drop in FSH levels. Near the end of the follicular phase, there is a dramatic increase in estradiol levels. At this point, the feedback of estradiol on the hypothalamus becomes positive and produces the midcycle surge of LH which immediately precedes ovulation. After ovulation, estradiol levels initially fall abruptly, but then increase as the corpus luteum forms. At the end of the cycle, levels fall off in anticipation of the initiation of the next follicular phase. During pregnancy, the placenta produces estradiol. Estradiol levels are generally low in menopause due to diminished ovarian production.
A small amount of estradiol is produced by the male testes. Elevated levels in males can lead to gynecomastia. Increased estradiol levels in males may be caused by increased body fat, resulting in enhanced peripheral aromatization of androgens. Levels in men can also be increased by excessive use of marijuana, alcohol, or prescribed drugs, including phenothiazines and spironolactone. Estradiol levels can also be dramatically elevated in germ cell tumors and tumors of a number of glands in both men and women.
Estradiol levels are routinely used to monitor ovulation induction to stimulate follicle development in patients being treated by assisted reproductive techniques.Estradiol levels can be used to calibrate the exogenous gonadotropin administration and have been found to correlate with follicle size. The pattern of estradiol secretion during the cycle can be used to predict the outcome of the ART protocol.
Insulin Fasting Blood Test:
Insulin is a peptide hormone that is produced by the pancreas and is used to control the level of glucose in in the blood. Glucose is a blood sugar that is introduced to the body by consuming carbohydrates. When glucose blood levels increase, insulin is then release from the pancreas into the blood stream. The insulin helps to remove the glucose from the blood and put it into fat and tissue cells where it can be stored for energy.
When the body is working optimally, this process of moving glucose out of the blood should only take about two hours. When glucose stays in the blood longer that this, it can cause nerve and heart damage, as well as organ and sexual dysfunction. Unfortunately, in people with diabetes, in some cases there is a lack of insulin in the body and in other cases insulin is present but is being inhibited from doing its job. The later process is known as insulin resistance. When insulin is unavailable or unable to function properly, glucose blood levels can become abnormally and dangerously high. It is also possible for insulin levels to be too high. This can result from overmedicating diabetes or from a natural occurrence of hypoglycemia, where there is so much insulin in the blood that glucose levels become dangerously low.
The NMR LipoProfile test is an advanced cardiovascular diagnostic test that uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to provide rapid, simultaneous and direct measurement of LDL particle number and size of LDL particles, and also direct measurement of HDL and VLDL subclasses. This detailed lipoprotein particle information allows health professionals to make more effective individualized treatment decisions than previously possible based on standard lipid panel testing. The atherosclerotic culprit not LDL cholesterol, but LDL particle number.
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