Top 12 Important Blood Test Panel, Women
A Top 12 Important Blood Test Panel and Women is a Complete Blood Count (CBC), Comprehensive Metabolic Panel - 14 tests, Testosterone Free Direct with Total Testosterone, Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Sulfate, Estradiol, Hemoglobin A1c, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Fibrinogen, Homocysteine Plasma, Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH), Lipid Panel With Total Cholesterol:HDL Ratio, Vitamin D 25-hydroxy.
Complete Blood Count (CBC) - Gives important information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood, mainly red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A CBC helps the health professional check any symptoms, such as weakness, fatigue, or bruising. A CBC also helps the health professional diagnose conditions, such as anemia, infection, and many other disorders.
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) - A group of 14 laboratory tests ordered to give information about the current status of your liver, kidneys, and electrolyte and acid/base balance. The test gives the current status of your blood sugar and blood proteins also.
Glucose (blood sugar level) - The most direct test to discover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Bun or Urea Nitrogen - Another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys and an indicator of kidney function.
Creatinine, Serum - An indicator of kidney function.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio - Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.
Protein, Total - Together with albumin, it is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body.
Albumin Serum - One of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition.
Globulin, Total - A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection-fighting antibodies.
Albumin/Globulin Ratio - Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin. Bilirubin, Total - A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
Alkaline Phosphatase - A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) - An enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) - An enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Fluids & Electrolytes
Sodium - One of the major salts in the body fluid, sodium is important in the body's water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles. Potassium - Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
Chloride - Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
Carbon Dioxide, Total - Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
Calcium - A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting).
Testosterone Free Direct with Total Testosterone - Includes both Free Direct and Total Testosterone results. Testosterone is a type of hormone (a steroid hormone). It travels around the body in the blood. Some of it floats about in the blood freely without being attached to anything else. This is 'free' testosterone. Some testosterone is attached/bound to a protein called SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin). Some testosterone is attached to a protein called albumin. So 'total' testosterone is the sum of all the testosterone in the blood, no matter what it is bound to. Free testosterone is floating around by itself and only a small percent of testosterone is free. Testosterone is used in the evaluation of hirsutism and masculinization in women; evaluation of testicular function in clinical states where the testosterone-binding proteins may be altered (obesity, cirrhosis, thyroid disorders). High free testosterone in men and women can have significant impacts on health and behavior. Testosterone is believed to play an important role in bone and muscle strength and libido in women.
Dehydroepiandrosterone, Sulfate (DHEAs) - An androgen, a male sex hormone present in the blood of both men and women. It aids in developing male secondary sexual characteristics at puberty and can be metabolized by the body into more potent androgens, such as testosterone and androstenedione, or changed into the female hormone estrogen. DHEAS is produced by the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal glands, with smaller amounts being produced by the woman's ovaries and man's testes. DHEAS secretion is controlled by the pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and other pituitary factors. DHEAS is primarily produced by the adrenal glands and is therefore useful as a marker for adrenal function. Cancers, Adrenal tumors, and hyperplasia can lead to the overproduction of DHEAS. Elevated levels may not be noticed in adult men, but they can lead to amenorrhea and visible symptoms of virilization.
Estradiol - The primary reproductive hormone in nonpregnant women. This steroid hormone plays an important role in normal fetal development and in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in females. Estradiol influences the maturation and maintenance of the uterus during the normal menstrual cycle. Levels of estradiol steadily increase during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in association with the growth and development of the ovarian follicle. As the follicular phase proceeds, estradiol exerts a negative feedback control on the pituitary, resulting in a drop in FSH levels. Near the end of the follicular phase, there is a dramatic increase in estradiol levels. At this point, the feedback of estradiol on the hypothalamus becomes positive and produces the midcycle surge of LH which immediately precedes ovulation. After ovulation, estradiol levels initially fall abruptly, but then increase as the corpus luteum forms. At the end of the cycle, levels fall off in anticipation of the initiation of the next follicular phase. During pregnancy, the placenta produces estradiol. Estradiol levels are generally low in menopause due to diminished ovarian production.
A small amount of Estradiol is produced by the male testes. Elevated levels in males can lead to gynecomastia. Increased estradiol levels in males may be caused by increased body fat, resulting in enhanced peripheral aromatization of androgens. Levels in men can also be increased by excessive use of marijuana, alcohol, or prescribed drugs, including phenothiazines and spironolactone. Estradiol levels can also be dramatically elevated in germ cell tumors and tumors of a number of glands in both men and women.
Fibrinogen - Produced by the liver and released into the circulation as needed along with more than 20 other clotting factors. Usually, when a body tissue or blood vessel wall is injured, a process called the coagulation cascade activates these clotting factors one after the other. As the cascade nears completion, soluble fibrinogen, which is fibrinogen dissolved in fluid, is changed into insoluble fibrin threads. These threads then crosslink together to form a fibrin net that stabilizes at the injury site. The fibrin net then adheres to the site of injury along with aggregated cell fragments called platelets to form a stable blood clot. This barrier prevents additional blood loss and will remain in place until the injured area has healed. Fibrinogen is one of several blood factors called acute phase reactants. Blood levels of fibrinogen along with other acute phase reactants will rise sharply with conditions causing acute tissue inflammation or damage. Fibrinogen testing measures the amount of soluble Factor I which is fibrinogen dissolved in the blood before it has been turned into insoluble fibrin and been cross-linked into a fibrin net.
Hemoglobin A1c - The A1c (Glycohemoglobin) test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the last two to three months. This is done by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein that is found inside red blood cells (RBCs). The predominant form is hemoglobin A.
C-reactive protein, high sensitivity, cardiac risk assessment (CRP,hs) - Measures the amount of a protein called C-reactive protein in your blood. C-reactive protein measures general levels of inflammation in the body. High levels of CRP are caused by infections and various long-term diseases. A CRP test cannot show where the inflammation is located or what is causing it, thus other tests are needed to find the cause and location of the inflammation.
Homocysteine - An amino acid is found normally in the body. Its metabolism is linked to the metabolism of several vitamins, including folic acid, B6, and B12, and deficiencies of those vitamins may cause elevated levels of homocysteine. Studies suggest that those with elevated homocysteine levels have a much greater risk of heart attack or stroke than those with average levels. Increased concentrations of homocysteine have been associated with the increased tendency to form inappropriate blood clots. This can lead to heart attack, strokes, and blood vessel blockages in any part of the body.
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH) - Used to diagnose a thyroid disorder in those with symptoms, screen newborns for an underactive thyroid, monitor thyroid replacement therapy in those with hypothyroidism, diagnose and monitor female infertility problems, help evaluate the function of the pituitary gland (occasionally), and screen adults for thyroid disorders, although expert opinions vary on who can benefit from screening and at what age to begin.
Cholesterol (Lipid) Panel - A lipid panel is a blood test that measures lipids, which are fats and fatty substances used as a source of energy by your body. Lipids include triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Vitamin D 25-hydroxy - Sufficiency, along with diet and exercise, has emerged as one of the most important preventive factors in human health. Hundreds of studies now link vitamin D deficiency with significantly higher rates of many forms of cancer‚ as well as heart disease‚ osteoporosis‚ multiple sclerosis and many other conditions and diseases.
Vitamin D tests are used to determine if bone malformation, bone weakness, or abnormal metabolism of calcium (reflected by abnormal calcium, phosphorus or PTH tests) is occurring as a result of a deficiency or excess of vitamin D. Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and is absorbed from the intestine like a fat, vitamin D tests are at times used to monitor individuals with diseases that interfere with fat absorption, such as cystic fibrosis and Crohn's disease, to assure that they have adequate amounts of vitamin D. Vitamin D tests are used to determine effectiveness of treatment when vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and/or magnesium supplementation is prescribed as well.
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