Cancer Screening Panel, Men
A Cancer Screening Panel for men includes: Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA), Cancer Antigen 19-9, Cancer Antigen 125, Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA).
Cancer Detection Panel for Men includes:
The Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) test is used to find how widespread cancer is for some types of the disease, especially colon cancer. It is also used to check the success of treatment for colon cancer. CEA levels may be measured both before and after surgery to evaluate both the success of the surgery and the person's chances of recovery and during treatment with chemotherapy. This provides information about how well the treatment is working and to moitor whether the cancer has returned after treatment.
The determination of Cancer Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) can't be used for the early detection of pancreatic carcinoma. Three to seven percent of the population have the Lewis a-negative/b-negative blood group configuration and are therefor unable to express the mucin with the reactive determinant CA 19-9. Patients who are genotypically negative for Lewis blood group antigens will be unable to produce the CA 19-9 antigen even in the presence of malignant tissue. Phenotyping for the presence of the Lewis blood group antigen can be insufficient to detect true Lewis antigen-negative individuals. Even genotype positive patients for the Lewis antigen may produce varying levels of CA 19-9 as the result of gene dosage effect. This factor must be taken into account when interpreting the findings. For diagnostic purposes, results should be assessed in conjunction with the patient's medical history, clinical examination, and other findings.
The test for Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125) is used to:
1. Check to see if treatment for cancer is working. If the level of CA-125 is decreasing, it usually means that the treatment is working.
2. Check to see if ovarian cancer has reoccured.
3. Check to see if the ovary is the main site of cancer in a female. If a doctor has found a cancer that has spread to another part of the body (metastatic cancer), they may do a CA-125 test to find out where the cancer started. High levels of CA-125 are a sign that the cancer started in the ovary, but other types of cancer can increase CA-125 levels as well.
In men, non-preganant women, and children, Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may mean certain types of cancer, especially cancer of the testicles, stomach, ovaries, pancreas, or liver are present. High levels of AFP may also be found in Hodgkin's disease, brain tumors, lymphoma, and renal cell cancer. An alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) blood test will check the level of AFP in a pregnant woman's blood. AFP is a substance made in the liver of a fetus. The amount of AFP in the blood of a pregnant woman can help to see whether the baby may have such problems as spina bifida and anencephaly. An AFP test can also be done as part of a screening test to find other chromosomal problems, such as Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18) or Down syndrome (trisomy 21). An AFP test can also help find an omphalocele, a congenital problem in which some of the baby's intestines will stick out through the belly wall.
Most men have Prostate-specific Antigen (PSA) levels under four (ng/mL) and this has been used as the cutoff for concern about risk of prostate cancer. Men with prostate cancer usually have PSA levels higher than four, although cancer is a possibility at any PSA level. Reports state that men who have a prostate gland that feels normal on examination and a PSA less than four have a 15% chance of having prostate cancer, and those with a PSA between four and 10 have a 25% chance of having prostate cancer and if the PSA is higher than 10, the risk increases to 67%.
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