Diabetes #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel
A Diabetes #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel includes a Complete Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) with Glucose, Complete Blood Count (CBC)'s, Hemoglobin A1C plus Insulin, Urinalysis, Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine, and C-Peptide.
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (14 tests) or CMP-14 Includes:
Glucose-Blood sugar level, the most direct test to discover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Bun or Urea Nitrogen BUN is another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys and an indicator of kidney function.
Creatinine, Serum An indicator of kidney function.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.
Protein, Total Together with albumin, it is a measure of the state of nutrition in the body.
Albumin Serum one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition.
Globulin, Total A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies.
Albumin/Globulin Ratio Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin.
Bilirubin, Total A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
Alkaline Phosphatase A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)an enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Fluids & Electrolytes
Sodium One of the major salts in the body fluid, sodium is important in the body's water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
Potassium Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
Chloride Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
Carbon Dioxide, Total Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
Calcium A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting).Glucose-Blood sugar level, the most direct test to discover diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes, but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
Complete Blood Count or CBCs are used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood and includes the following:
White blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the actual number of white blood cells per volume of blood. Increases and decreases can both be significant. White blood cell differential looks at the types of white blood cells present. There are five different types of white blood cells, each with its own function in protecting from infections. The differential classifies a person's white blood cells into each type: neutrophils (also known as segs, PMNs, granulocytes, grans), lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophil’s, and basophils.
Red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the actual number of red blood cells per volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions.
Hemoglobin measures the amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood.
Hematocrit measures the percentage of the red blood cells in a given volume of whole blood.
Platelets is the number of platelets in a given volume of blood. Both increases and decreases can point to abnormal conditions of excess bleeding or clotting. Mean platelet volume (MPV) is a machine-calculated measurement of the average size of platelets. New platelets are larger, and an increased MPV occurs when increased numbers of platelets are produced.
MPV gives your doctor information about platelet production in bone marrow.
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of RBC's. The MCV is elevated when RBC's are larger than normal (macrocytic), as seen in anemia caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. When the MCV is decreased, RBC's are smaller than normal (microcytic) as seen in iron deficiency anemia or thalassemia’s.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the average amount of oxygen-carrying hemoglobin inside the red blood cell. Macrocytic RBC's are large and will tend to have a higher MCH, while microcytic red cells will have a lower value.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside the red cell. Decreased MCHC values (hypochromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is abnormally diluted inside the red cells, such as in iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia. Increased MCHC values (hyperchromia) are seen in conditions where the hemoglobin is abnormally concentrated inside the red cells, seen in burn patients and hereditary spherocytosis, a relatively rare congenital disorder.
Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) is a calculation of the variation in the size of your RBC's. In certain anemia’s, such as pernicious anemia, the amount of variation (anisocytosis) in RBC size (along with variation in shape poikilocytosis) causes an increase in the RDW.
The Hemoglobin A1c (Glycohemoglobin) test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the past two to three months. This is done by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside red blood cells (RBC's). While there are several types of normal hemoglobin and many identified hemoglobin variants, the predominant form about 95-98% is hemoglobin A.
Fasting Insulin levels may be useful predicting susceptibility to the development of type II diabetes, though C-peptide has mostly supplanted insulin measurement for this role. The measurement of insulin levels is not included in The American Diabetes Association recommendations for diagnosis.
Urinalysis, Complete is useful in the evaluation of conditions such as urinary tract infection, dehydration, and kidney stones. Insulin is used in diagnosing and the therapy of various disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, including diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Insulin levels may be useful predicting susceptibility to the development of type II diabetes, though C-peptide has mostly supplanted insulin measurement for this role. The measurement of insulin levels is not included in The American Diabetes Association recommendations for diagnosis. Microalbumin is one of the first proteins to be detected in the urine with kidney damage. Patients who consistently have detectible amounts of albumin in their urine (microalbuminuria) have an increased risk of developing progressive kidney failure and cardiovascular disease in the future. Microalbumin measurements may be obtained using urine collected over a 24-hour period, for a specified amount of time (e.g., 4 hours or overnight), or randomly (spot). C-peptide levels may be tested if you have newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, as part of an evaluation of your residual beta cell function (how much insulin your beta cells are making). With type 2 diabetes, the test can monitor the status of your beta cells and insulin production over time and to determine if/when insulin injections may be required.
The microalbumin/creatine ratio measures the tiny amounts of albumin that the body begins to release into the urine several years before significant kidney damage becomes apparent. Albumin, a protein produced in the liver, is present in high concentrations in the blood, but when the kidneys are functioning properly, virtually no albumin is allowed to leak through into the urine. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is usually excreted into the urine on a consistent basis. Creatinine's level in the urine is relatively stable. Since the concentration (or dilution) of urine varies throughout the day, this property of creatinine allows the measurement to be used as a corrective factor in random/spot urine samples.
1. Help differentiate between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
2. Find the cause of hypoglycemia.
3. Check to see whether an insulinoma was completely removed.
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