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Diabetes #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel

A Diabetes #2 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel includes a Complete Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) with Glucose, Complete Blood Count (CBC)'s, Hemoglobin A1C plus Insulin, Urinalysis, Microalbumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine, and C-Peptide.

Sample Report

Test Code: 573

Also Known As:

Methodology:

See Individual Tests

Preparation:

Fasting for 14-16 hours required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-4 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Sample Report

Test Code: 2264

Also Known As:

Methodology:

See Individual Tests

Preparation:

Fasting for 14-16 hours required. Stop biotin consumption at least 72 hours prior to the collection.

Test Results:

2-4 days. May take longer based on weather, holiday or lab delays.

Description

Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP-14) with eGRF Blood Test

 

  • Glucose - Blood sugar level, the most direct test to screen for diabetes and also used in diabetes management.

 

  • Kidney Profile
    • Bun or Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - An indicator of kidney function.  
    • Creatinine, Serum - An indicator of kidney function.  
    • Bun/Creatinine Ratio - Calculated by dividing BUN by creatinine. This ratio can suggest conditions including dehydration or intestinal bleeding.
    • Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) - Measures kidney function to determine kidney disease stage and detect early kidney damage.

 

  • Liver Panel
    • Protein, Total - Assists in determining liver and kidney function and nutritional health.
    • Albumin Serum - One of the major proteins essential for the healthy function of the liver and kidney. 
    • Globulin, Total - One of the major proteins that assist the blood to clot properly and also comprises infection-fighting antibodies. 
    • Albumin/Globulin Ratio - Calculated by dividing albumin by globulin. When paired with other test results, this ratio can assist in the diagnosis of a variety of liver problems. 
    • Bilirubin, Total - Aids in the detection of hepatitis, sickle cell, anemia, cirrhosis, alcohol, and drug abuse. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
    • Alkaline Phosphatase - A protein vital in detecting bone disorders and liver disease.
    • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST or SGOT) - An enzyme helpful in evaluating liver function. An elevated level is an indication of hepatitis. 
    • Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT) - An enzyme helpful in identifying liver damage. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.

 

  • Fluids & Electrolytes
    • Sodium - One of the major salts in body fluid. Sodium is important in water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
    • Potassium - Helps to control the nerves and muscles.
    • Chloride - Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
    • Carbon Dioxide, Total - Used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
    • Calcium - A mineral essential for the development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is also important for the normal function of muscles, nerves, and blood clotting.

 

Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential and Platelets

 

A CBC is a comprehensive screening test that can help diagnose a wide range of illnesses and diseases, including anemia, leukemia, bleeding disorders, and infections. The CBC provides the following information:

 

  • White Blood Cells (WBC) - The body's primary defense against disease and helps to fight infection.
  • Red Blood Cells (RBC) - Responsible for carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from all cells. Iron deficiency will lower the RBC count.
  • Hemoglobin - A chemical compound inside red cells that transports oxygen through the bloodstream to all cells of the body. Hemoglobin gives the red color to blood.
  • Hematocrit - Measures the amount of space red blood cells take up in the blood. It is reported as a percentage.
  • Lymphocytes - This result, along with basophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and neutrophils, deal with white blood cell function.
  • Monocytes - This result, along with basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils, deal with white blood cell function. 
  • Neutrophils - This result, along with basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, deal with white blood cell function.
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) - The average hemoglobin concentration within a red blood cell.
  • Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) - The average hemoglobin concentration percentage within a red blood cell.
  • Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) - The average size of red blood cells.
  • Platelets - Blood cell particles associated with the forming of blood clots.
  • Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) - Measures the amount of red blood cell variation in volume and size.

 

The Hemoglobin A1c (Glycohemoglobin) test evaluates the average amount of glucose in the blood over the past two to three months. This is done by measuring the concentration of glycated (also often called glycosylated) hemoglobin A1c. Hemoglobin is an oxygen-transporting protein found inside red blood cells (RBC's). While there are several types of normal hemoglobin and many identified hemoglobin variants, the predominant form about 95-98% is hemoglobin A.

Fasting Insulin levels may be useful predicting susceptibility to the development of type II diabetes, though C-peptide has mostly supplanted insulin measurement for this role. The measurement of insulin levels is not included in The American Diabetes Association recommendations for diagnosis.

Urinalysis, Complete is useful in the evaluation of conditions such as urinary tract infection, dehydration, and kidney stones. Insulin is used in diagnosing and the therapy of various disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, including diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia. Insulin levels may be useful predicting susceptibility to the development of type II diabetes, though C-peptide has mostly supplanted insulin measurement for this role. The measurement of insulin levels is not included in The American Diabetes Association recommendations for diagnosis. Microalbumin is one of the first proteins to be detected in the urine with kidney damage. Patients who consistently have detectible amounts of albumin in their urine (microalbuminuria) have an increased risk of developing progressive kidney failure and cardiovascular disease in the future. Microalbumin measurements may be obtained using urine collected over a 24-hour period, for a specified amount of time (e.g., 4 hours or overnight), or randomly (spot). C-peptide levels may be tested if you have newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, as part of an evaluation of your residual beta cell function (how much insulin your beta cells are making). With type 2 diabetes, the test can monitor the status of your beta cells and insulin production over time and to determine if/when insulin injections may be required.

The microalbumin/creatine ratio measures the tiny amounts of albumin that the body begins to release into the urine several years before significant kidney damage becomes apparent. Albumin, a protein produced in the liver, is present in high concentrations in the blood, but when the kidneys are functioning properly, virtually no albumin is allowed to leak through into the urine. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is usually excreted into the urine on a consistent basis. Creatinine's level in the urine is relatively stable. Since the concentration (or dilution) of urine varies throughout the day, this property of creatinine allows the measurement to be used as a corrective factor in random/spot urine samples.

C-Peptide measures the level of this peptide in the blood. The peptide is generally found in amounts equal to insulin because insulin and C-peptide are linked when first made by the pancreas. Insulin helps the body use and control the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood and allows glucose to enter body cells where it is used for energy. The level of C-peptide in the blood may show how much insulin is being made by the pancreas. C-peptide doesn't affect the blood sugar level in the body. A C-peptide test can be done when diabetes has just been discovered and it is not clear whether type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes is present. A person whose pancreas does not make any insulin (type 1 diabetes) will have a low level of insulin and C-peptide. A person with type 2 diabetes will have a normal or high level of C-peptide. A C-peptide test is done to: 


1. Help differentiate between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. 
2. Find the cause of hypoglycemia. 
3. Check to see whether an insulinoma was completely removed.

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