STD #3 Extreme Blood and Urine Test Panel, 15 Tests
The STD #3 Extreme Blood and Urine Panel, 15 Tests, helps to screen for seven common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), plus eight additional blood and urine tests.
What are STDs?
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are infections transmitted between sexual partners and through skin-to-skin contact. Some STDs can be transmitted from a pregnant person to the baby during pregnancy or birth. STDs may also be spread during breastfeeding, through blood transfusions, or by sharing needles. Many STDs cause mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. Unfortunately, having an STD can also increase the risk of getting HIV. STD screening is vital to ensure early detection and prompt treatment to prevent the spread of infection.
The STD #3 Essential Blood and Urine Test Panel includes:
Chlamydia - caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis- is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the US. However, because it often doesn't cause symptoms, many people may not know they have it. Although antibiotics can cure it, if left untreated, chlamydia can cause serious health problems.
Gonorrhea - is an STD that can cause infection in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is widespread, especially among young people ages 15-24. It is an easily treated STD, but left untreated can cause severe reproductive and health problems.
RPR, Qualitative - tests for the bacterium that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum. Syphilis is an infectious disease most often spread by sexual contact, including direct contact with a syphilis sore (chancre). Syphilis is easily treated but left untreated can cause severe health problems. Infected mothers can also pass the disease to the fetus, with severe and potentially fatal consequences for the baby.
RPR, Quantitative - False-positive reactions for the RPR can occur due to pregnancy, drug addiction, collagen vascular disease, and advanced age. Many non-syphilis infectious diseases and inflammatory states have also noted false-positive results. False-positive RPR results have also been reported in patients vaccinated against influenza and hepatitis C.
Hepatitis A Antibody IgM - indicates a recent infection with the hepatitis A virus. IgM anti-HAV antibodies can generally be detected in the blood as early as two weeks after the initial HAV infection. The antibodies will disappear from the blood 3 to 12 months after the infection. IgG anti-HAV antibodies indicate an individual has had hepatitis A viral infection. About 8 to 12 weeks after the initial infection with the hepatitis A virus, IgG anti-HAV antibodies will appear and remain in the blood for lifelong protection (immunity) against HAV.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) - is a protein produced by the hepatitis B virus. It is the earliest indicator of acute hepatitis B and often identifies infected people before symptoms appear. During the recovery period, HBsAg disappears from the blood. In certain people (particularly those infected as children or those with a weak immune system, such as those with AIDS), chronic infection with HBV may occur, and HBsAg remains positive.
HIV Antigen/Antibodies - stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV damages the immune system by destroying white blood cells (WBCs) that help the body combat infection. Unfortunately, this puts individuals at risk for other infections and diseases.
Hepatitis C Antibody - is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C can range from acute to chronic. Acute hepatitis C is a short-term infection lasting up to 6 months. Sometimes the body can combat the infection, and the virus goes away. However, for most people, acute infection leads to chronic infection. Chronic hepatitis C is a long-lasting infection. Left untreated, it can last a lifetime and cause severe health problems, such as liver damage, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and even death.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) 1 and 2, IgG - most widely known as herpes, there are two types: HSV type 1 (oral herpes) and HSV type 2 (genital herpes). Cold sores around the mouth or face characterize oral herpes. While genital herpes targets the genitals, buttocks, or anal regions. In addition, other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other body parts. The virus can be dangerous in newborns or people with compromised immune systems.
This panel also includes the following additional blood and urine tests:
CMP-14 - includes the following:
- Glucose: Blood sugar level, the most direct individual test to diagnose diabetes, may be used not only to identify diabetes but also to evaluate how one controls the disease.
- BUN (Urea Nitrogen) - is a by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys. BUN is an indicator of kidney function.
- Creatinine, Serum - an indicator of kidney function
- Bun/Creatinine Ratio - is calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine.
- Glomerular Filtration (eGFR) - assesses the kidney's filtering capacity.
- Fluids & Electrolytes:
- Sodium - is one of the major salts in the body fluid. Sodium is essential in the body's water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles.
- Potassium - helps to control the nerves and muscles.
- Chloride - similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance.
- Carbon Dioxide, Total - is used to help detect, evaluate, and monitor electrolyte imbalances.
- Calcium: A mineral essential for developing and maintaining healthy bones and teeth. It is also crucial for the normal function of muscles, nerves, and blood clotting.
- Protein, Total - in conjunction with albumin, it measures the state of nutrition in the body.
- Albumin - is one of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition.
- Globulin, Total - a significant group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection-fighting antibodies
- Albumin/Globulin Ratio - is calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin.
- Bilirubin, Total - is a chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice.
- Alkaline Phosphatase - is a body protein essential in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
- Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) - is an enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver, and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) - is an enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) - measures the amount of transferrin, a blood protein that transports iron from the gut to the cells that use it. Your body makes transferrin in relationship to your need for iron; when iron stores are low, transferrin levels increase, while transferrin is low when there is too much iron. Usually, about one-third of the transferrin is used to transport iron. Because of this, your blood serum has a considerable extra iron-binding capacity, the Unsaturated Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC). The TIBC equals UIBC plus the serum iron measurement. Some laboratories measure UIBC, some measure TIBC, and some measure transferrin.
Ferritin - is a protein inside of cells that stores iron for later use by your body. The small amount of ferritin released into blood reflects the total storage of iron. Iron is also stored as hemosiderin, a complex of iron, proteins, and other materials. Ferritin and hemosiderin are present primarily in the liver, bone marrow, spleen, and skeletal muscles. In healthy people, most iron is stored as ferritin (an estimated 70% in men and 80% in women), and smaller amounts are kept as hemosiderin.
ANA Test - identifies the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in the blood. These autoantibodies attack the body's cells, causing signs and symptoms such as tissue and organ inflammation, joint and muscle pain, and fatigue. ANA is a marker of an autoimmune process and is associated with several autoimmune disorders but is most commonly seen in the autoimmune disorder systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Depending on the patient's symptoms and the suspected diagnosis, ANA may be ordered along with one or more auto-antibody tests. Other laboratory tests associated with inflammation, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), may also be ordered.
Prothrombin Time (PT) - measures how long it takes for a clot to form in a blood sample. The PT test is usually measured in seconds and compared to healthy individuals' values. However, because the reagents used to perform the PT test vary from one laboratory to another and even within the same laboratory over time, the normal values also will fluctuate. To standardize results across the U.S. and the world, a World Health Organization (WHO) committee developed and recommended the use of the Internationalized Normalized Ratio (INR) with the PT test for patients who are receiving the blood-thinning medication warfarin (Coumadin). The INR is a calculation that adjusts for changes in the PT reagents and allows for results from different laboratories to be compared. Most laboratories now report PT and INR values whenever a PT test is performed.
Ceruloplasmin - is a copper-containing enzyme that plays a role in the body's iron metabolism. Copper is an essential mineral that is absorbed into the body through diet. Absorbed in the intestines, it is then transported to the liver, where it is stored or used to produce various enzymes. The liver binds copper to apo-ceruloplasmin to produce ceruloplasmin and then releases it into the bloodstream. About 95% of the copper in the blood is bound to ceruloplasmin. Because of this, the ceruloplasmin test can be used along with one or more copper tests to help diagnose Wilson's disease and evaluate copper metabolism.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) - detection of hereditary decreases in a1-antitrypsin (a1AT) production. Decreased or nearly absent levels of a1AT can be a factor in chronic obstructive lung disease and liver disease. An increased prevalence of non-MM phenotypes is more prevalent with cryptogenic cirrhosis and CAH. Therefore, cirrhosis in a child should raise consideration of a1AT deficiency or Wilson disease. Diagnosis of inflammatory states, if elevated (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial infection, neoplasia, vasculitis).
Urinalysis Complete with Microscopic Examination - detects abnormalities of urine and urinary tract infection (UTI); diagnoses and manages renal diseases, urinary tract infections, urinary tract neoplasms, systemic diseases, and inflammatory or neoplastic diseases adjacent to the urinary tract.
When should I order an STD #3 Extreme Blood and Urine Panel, 15 Tests?
Individuals may order this panel if they have experienced symptoms related to an STD or if an infection is suspected. However, STDs don't always cause symptoms or may only cause mild symptoms. So it is possible to have an infection and not know it. And even without symptoms, STDs can still be harmful and may be passed on during sex. If there are symptoms, they may include:
- Unusual discharge or odor from the genitals
- Sores or warts on the genitals
- Painful or frequent urination
- Itching and redness on the genitals
- Blisters or sores in or around the mouth
- Anal itching, soreness, or bleeding
- Abdominal pain
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